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Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn
Other Agriculture Products, Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn, , SAI PETROCHEMICALS P. LTD, India
Agriculture > Other Agriculture Products
Detailed Product Description
Undi / Nagchampa (Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn) trees arenormally planted along the highways, roads to stop soil erosion.Millions of trees exist all over Coastal India. If the seeds fallenalong road side are collected, and oil is extracted at village levelexpellers, thousands of tons of oil will be available for Lighting theLamps in rural area. It is the best substitute forKerosene. Since these are spread over a large area, collection of seedsfor BioDiesel manufacture is not viable. (A compact plantation cansupport a BioDiesel plant).
Introduction : It is of African, Asian, Polynesian and Pacificorigin. The beauty of this plant is that it is known by people of morethan one country and so we are able to make comparisons between theways in which that plant has been used.
Botanical names : Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn (Syn. CalophyllumBintagor Roxb.) (Guttiferae). It is a member of the mangosteen family.Mesua ferrea Linn has also been seen as an alternative Latin name.
Common names : Known in English as Alexandrian Laurel, Tamanu,Pannay Tree, Sweet Scented Calophyllum. The wood used to be sold asBorneo Mahagany. Bengali: Punnang. Marathi: Undi. Burmese: Pongnyet.Cutchi: Udi. Hindi: Undi, Surpan, Surpunka, Sultan Champa. Konkani:Undee-phal. Malyalam: Cherupuna, Ponnakum, Sinhalese: Domba, Dombagaha,Teldomba, Sultanchampa. Tamil:Nagam,Nameru, Pinmai,Punnagam, Punnai,Punnagum, Punnaivirai. Pinnay. Telagu: Pumagamu, Ponnvittulu,Ponnachettu. Hawaiian: Kamani.
Habitat : Bitaog (as it is most usually called) is foundthroughout the Philippines along the seashores. It is native toTropical Asia and its geographical distribution area also includesMelanesia and Polynesia. It grows near the sea coast throughout India.In French Polynesia, the Tamanu tree is widespread on most of theislands. It grows primarily in the coral sands and on the sea shore,although specimens may be found in valleys. Its seeds sprout easily inmuddy and saline soils. The Motu (coral reefs), which surround thevolcanic islands, are covered with Tamanu trees; they are very muchappreciated for their fragrantflowers and elegant foliage and are thus planted along avenues. Kamani,as it is also known, was brought north to Hawai from the South Pacificislands in early migrations of Polynesian settlers. Also calledAlexandrian laurel, true kamaniwas probably introduced by seed, whichis how it is propagated. This native of the Pacific and of tropicalAfrica, grows slowly along sandy shores and in lowland forests. It wascultivated in villages, near houses and also in groves away fromvillages. When found growing in windy areas, it is sometimes in apicturesque form.
Plant description : The tree is 2 to 3 meters high, and has athick trunk covered with a rough, black and cracked bark. It haselliptical, shiny and tough leaves. Its flowers, arranged in auxiliarycymes, have a sweet, lime-like fragrance. The tree, which flowers twicea year, is said to attain a great age. The numerous fruits, arranged inclusters, are spherical drupes. Once ripe, their smooth, yellowepidermis discloses a thin layer of pulp, which tastes somewhat ofapple. The gray, ligneous and rather soft nut contains a pale yellowkernel, which is odourless when fresh. Once chewed, it coats the mouthand emulsifies saliva, and its insipid taste becomes bitter. Kernelshave a very high oil content (75%). It is obtained by cold expressionand yields a refined, greenish yellow oil, similar to olive oil, withan aromatic odour and an insipid taste. Once grown, a tree produces upto 100 kg fruits and about 18 kg oil.
Oil processing : Unlike most vegetable oils, oil is notcontained in fresh ripe fruits. It forms in the course of the nutsdesiccation. The oil production process is as follows: ripe andnon-germinating fruits are slightly crushed in order to crack theshells without damaging the kernels. The latter are quickly removed,arranged in thin layers and exposed to the sun. They must not beexposed to humidity in any case. In spite of these precautions, somekernels mould and must be eliminated. During the desiccation process,kernels loose weight (from a mean 7 g for fresh kernels to about 4.5 gfor dry and oil-rich ones). They become brownish, develop an aromaticodour and increase their oil content. In the meantime they loose theirgerminative power. The transformation is completed within 2 monthsprovided the weather has been dry enough. Kernels can then be storedfor a long time. Undi/Tamanu oil and cake is available between February-April. Cake is generally used for preparing manures orbio-insecticides.
Use of the plant and its parts : The bark, seeds and leaves areused with a bitter oil coming from the seeds together with a resin anda gum. When mature, it has a thin leathery darkgray brownish skin which covers a bony shell that holds a partlypoisonous kernel or seed surrounded by a cork-like substance. A lampoil for light was produced from the kernel and was used at timesinstead of other oils. The oil is dark, green, thick and called Undioil. Sometimes this oil is useful for massage, especially when enhancedwith coconut oil or flower fragrances. The oil may have been useful inwater proofing cloth and is used as a varnish. In the old days anextract from the fruit was used to make a brown dye to colour cloth.The oil can also be used to make soap.
Flowers : The fragrant flowers are used to make bouquets and wreaths and are also worn in the hair by women.
Shell : The round, thin shells are used as a receptacle for bura sugar, which is a popular confection.
Properties of oil : In Southern India, the oil of the seeds ofthe plant is used specifically for treating skin diseases. It is alsoapplied topically in cases of rheumatism. It is also used as lamp oiland for manufacture of soap. The two main actives in this oil werediscovered. A totally new fatty acid, Calophyllic acid and a lactoneendowed with antibiotic properties to be at the origin of the oilsamazing cicatrizing power. The dark yellow oil extracted from the seedscontains a poisonous resin, which has a parsley-like odour.
Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn
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