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Madhuca Plant

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Keywords Other Agriculture Products, Madhuca Plant, , SAI PETROCHEMICALS P. LTD, India
Category Agriculture > Other Agriculture Products 
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Detailed Product Description


The two major species of genus Madhuca found in India are MadhucaIndica (latifolia) and Madhuca longifolia (longifolia). Mahua is thewidely accepted as local name for the fat from both these species. Thisplant is common in deciduous forests. The seed and oil potential ofthis tree in the country is 500,000 tons and 180,000 tons.
Madhuca latifolia is a medium sized to large deciduous tree,distributed in Andhra pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orisssa, Biharand Uttar Pradesh, Madhuca longifoia, a large evergreen tree found inSouth India, and evergreen forests of the Western ghats from KonkanSouthwards. The tree is planted in Most part of India, propagatingeither by itself or sown seeds.
Botanical Features : M. Latijolia is a deciduous tree whiteM.Congijolia is ever green or semi ever green tree. It attains heightupto 70 ft. The tree matures from 8 to 15 years, and fruits upto 60years. The two species are not differenciated in Trade. The kernels are70% of seed by weight. Seed contains two kernels, having 25 mm x 17.5mm in size. Oil content in latifolia is 46% and 52% in longifolia. Inseeds oil content is 35% and protein in 16%.


Flowering : The flowering season extends from February to April. Thecopious fall of succulent, corollas weave a cream coloured carpet onthe ground. It is rich in sugar (73%) and next to cane molassesconstitute the most important raw material for alcohol fermentation.The yield of 95% alcohol is 405 liters from one tonne of dried flowers.
Fruiting : The matured fruits fall on the ground in May and July in theNorth and August and September in the South. The orange brown ripefleshy berry is 25 to 50 mm long and contains one to four shiningseeds. The seeds can be separated from the fruit wall by pressing.Drying and decortications yield 70% kernels on the weight of seeds.
Kernal : Each seed contain two kernels. As other forest crop mahua seedcollection is difficult. Birds and animals eat the fleshy fruits.Collection of seeds and kernel separation is done by tribals and ruralpeople in unorganized manner. Hence, there is considerable loss duringdrying and storage of kernels. Kernels contain 50% oil.
Storage of Kernals : The storage condition determine the quality ofexpelled oil, as the kernels are susceptible to both fungus and insectattack during the storage. Aspergillus flavus and Rhizophus sp. arechief among the fungi and Oryzaephilus surinamensis, an insect, isknown to cause maximum damage. Storage of kernels at about 8% moisturelevel or better at 5 to 6% moisture level in Gunny bags with aluminumphosphide would preserve the kernels well. The quality of expelled oildepends largely on the storage conditions of kernels. The kernels aresusceptible to both fungus and insect attack. Fresh oil from properlystored seeds is yellow in colour, while commercial oils are generallygreenish yellow with a disagreeable odour and taste. The FFA of oilfrom fresh kernels is 1-2 percent. Poorly stored kernels yield oil of30% FFA or even higher.
Oil : Mahua seed contains 35% oil and 16% protein.
The characteristics of fat are as under :

CharactersCharacterstics / value
ColourPole yellow
ConsistencyPlastic
Refractive index at 40o C1.452 to 1.462
Specific gravity at 15o C0.856 to 0.870
Iodine value58 to 70
Specification value187 to 196
Un sponification value1 to 3


The composition of fat are as under :

Fatty acidsPercentage
Palmitic acid16-28.2
Stearic20-25.1
Arachidic03.3
Oleic41.0-51.0
Linoleic8.9 13.7


Propogation : The tree reproduces through seed and coppice. Thesuitable sowing time is July-August. The seeds germinate after a goodshower of monsoon rains. The seeds which get covered under the soil,germinate better and give rise to the seedlings while those lyingexposed are either attacked by insects or fungus or their emergingradicles dry up before getting a hold in the soil. Some seedlings getsuppressed and killed by all weeds and grasses. Forest fires, tramplingand browsing by animals also take a heavy toll of the seedlings.Seedling growth of seed origin is slow and except in the open, seedlingregeneration is quite scanty.


Madhuca Plant

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