Detailed Product Description
Simarouba Glauca, is an edible oil seed bearingtree, which is well suited for warm, humid, tropical regions. Itscultivation depends on rainfall distribution, water holding capacity ofthe soil and sub-soil moisture. It is suited for temperature range of10 to 40oC. the tree is now found in different regions ofIndia. It can be grown on waste tracts of marginal, fallow lands ofSouthern India.
The tree is native to central and north America. Itcan grow at elevations from sea level to 1,000 meters. It grows 40 to50 feet tall and has a span of 25 to 30 feet. It bears yellow flowers,and oval elongated purple colored fleshy fruits.
- Simarouba saplings are sturdy in nature and can survive under alltypes of terrain, and soils with some depth for the roots to penetrate.
- Simarouba survives under rain fed conditions with rainfall around 400 mm.
- It can grow in all types of degraded soils and waste lands.
- It is not grazed by cattle, goat or sheep.
- It sheds large quantities of leaves, which makes soil more fertile.
- It protects the soil from parching due to hot sun shine.
- Its seed contains 65% edible oil.
- Oilseed cake is of best NPK value.
- Its fruit is also edible with sweet pulp.
- All its parts have medicinal value.
- It has a life of about 70 years.
- Its wood is termite resistant.
- It is not attacked by insects and pests.
- Its long roots prevent soil erosion.
Propagation : It can be propagated from seeds, grafting andtissue culture technology. Fruits are collected in the month of April /May, when they are ripe and then dried in sun for about a week. Skin isseparated and seeds are grown in plastic bags to produce saplings.Sapling 2 to 3 months old can be transplanted in plantation.
Soil and Climate : It is a tropical tree and rainfall should beat least 400 mm. The depth of the soil should be at least 1 meter. pHof soil should be from 5.5 to 8. It can grow in any type of soil whichare unsuitable for cultivation of other crops.
The average per hectare yield of Simarouba is : Seed 4 tons, Oil 2.6 tons, cake 1.4 tons.
Simarouba glauca DC with Common names : Simarouba, oil tree, paradisetree or aceituno is an important tree species growing in the forests ofCentral America. It was first introduced by National Bureau of PlantGenetic Resources in the Research Station at Amravati, Maharashtra in1960s. This was brought to the University of Agricultural Sciences,Bangalore in 1986 and systematic Research and Developmental Activitiesbegan from 1993 onwards.
DESCRIPTION : This medium sized evergreen tree begins to bearwhen it is 6-8 years old (3-4 years in case of grafts) and attainsstability in production after another 4-5 years.
The flowering is annual, beginning in December and continuing up tofollowing February. The trees are polygamodioecious and only somefemales are heavy bearers.By grafting with a suitable scion in situ the sex of the plant can betransformed as desired and the productivity can be increased.
The drupelets turn black (in Kaali variety) or greenish yellow (inGauri variety) when they are ready for harvest during April/May.Manually harvested drupelets are depulped, washed and sun-dried(moisture about 10%) and transported at convenience for processing.
USES : Seeds contain 60-75% oil that can be extracted byconventional methods. Each well-grown tree yields 15 to 30 Kg nutletsequivalent to 2.5-5 Kg oil and about the same quantity of oilcake. Thisamounts to 1000-2000 Kg oil/ha/year (400-800 Kg/acre/year) and aboutthe same quantity of oilcake.
The oil is largely used in the preparation of bakery products inCentral America. In India too it can be used in the manufacture ofvanaspati, vegetable oil and/or margarine. The oil is free from badcholesterol.
It can be also used for industrial purposes in the manufacture ofBiofuels, soaps, detergents, lubricants, varnishes, cosmetics,pharmaceuticals etc.
The oilcake being rich in nitrogen (8%), phosphorus (1.1%) and potash(1.2%), is good organic manure. The shells can be used in themanufacture of particleboard, activated charcoal or as fuel. The fruitpulp, rich in sugars (about 11%) can be used in the preparation ofbeverages.
The pulp along with leaf litter can be economically used in themanufacture ofVermi compost (about 8 tons/ha/year or 3 tons/acre/year). The bark andleaves are medicinally important. The wood is generally insectresistant and is used in the preparation ofquality furniture, toys, in match industry, as pulp (in paper making)and as fuel.